1. 1. 硬件
    1. 1.1. 印刷电路板
    2. 1.2. 通信硬件、接口及存储
    3. 1.3. 集成电路
    4. 1.4. 超大规模集成电路
    5. 1.5. 电力和能源
    6. 1.6. 电子设计自动化
    7. 1.7. 硬件验证
    8. 1.8. 硬件测试
    9. 1.9. 健壮性
    10. 1.10. 新兴技术
  2. 2. 计算机系统组织
    1. 2.1. 架构
    2. 2.2. 嵌入式和网络物理系统
    3. 2.3. 实时系统
    4. 2.4. 可靠且容错的系统和网络
  3. 3. 网络
    1. 3.1. 网络架构
    2. 3.2. 网络协议
    3. 3.3. 网络组件
    4. 3.4. 网络算法
    5. 3.5. 网络性能评估
    6. 3.6. 网络属性
    7. 3.7. 网络服务
    8. 3.8. 网络类型
  4. 4. 软件及其工程
    1. 4.1. 软件组织和属性
    2. 4.2. 软件表示法及工具
    3. 4.3. 软件创建及管理
  5. 5. 计算理论
    1. 5.1. 计算模型
    2. 5.2. 形式语言及自动机理论
    3. 5.3. 计算复杂度及密码学
    4. 5.4. 逻辑学
    5. 5.5. 算法设计与分析
    6. 5.6. 随机性、几何学和离散结构
    7. 5.7. 应用领域理论和算法
    8. 5.8. 语义及推理
  6. 6. 计算机数学
    1. 6.1. 离散数学
    2. 6.2. 概览论与统计学
    3. 6.3. 数学软件
    4. 6.4. 信息论
    5. 6.5. 数学分析
    6. 6.6. 连续数学
  7. 7. 信息系统
    1. 7.1. 数据管理系统
    2. 7.2. 数据存储系统
    3. 7.3. 信息系统的应用
    4. 7.4. 互联网
    5. 7.5. 信息检索
  8. 8. 安全与隐私
    1. 8.1. 密码学
    2. 8.2. 安全的形式方法及理论
    3. 8.3. 安全服务
    4. 8.4. 入侵/异常检测与恶意软件拦截
    5. 8.5. 硬件安全
    6. 8.6. 系统安全
    7. 8.7. 网络安全
    8. 8.8. 数据库和存储安全
    9. 8.9. 软件和应用安全
    10. 8.10. 安全与隐私的人文与社会
  9. 9. 以人为本的计算机
    1. 9.1. 人机交互
    2. 9.2. 交互设计
    3. 9.3. 协作及社交计算
    4. 9.4. 普适计算
    5. 9.5. 可视化
    6. 9.6. 辅助功能
  10. 10. 计算方法
    1. 10.1. 符号和代数运算
    2. 10.2. 并行计算方法
    3. 10.3. 人工智能
    4. 10.4. 机器学习
    5. 10.5. 建模与模拟
    6. 10.6. 计算机图形
    7. 10.7. 分布式计算方法
    8. 10.8. 并发计算方法
  11. 11. 应用计算
    1. 11.1. 电子商务
    2. 11.2. 企业计算
    3. 11.3. 物理科学与工程
    4. 11.4. 生命与医学
    5. 11.5. 法律、社会科学与行为科学
    6. 11.6. 计算机鉴别
    7. 11.7. 人文艺术
    8. 11.8. 其它领域的计算机
    9. 11.9. 运筹学
    10. 11.10. 教育
    11. 11.11. 文件管理与文字处理
  12. 12. 社会和职业话题
    1. 12.1. 职业话题
    2. 12.2. 计算/技术政策
    3. 12.3. 用户特征

CCS2012 知识图谱

本目录为 www.acm.org 官方在 2012 发布的计算机科学的知识目录,原文地址在: https://dl.acm.org/ccs/ccs_flat.cfm

硬件

印刷电路板

  • Electromagnetic interference and compatibility
  • PCB design and layout

通信硬件、接口及存储

  • Signal processing systems
    • Digital signal processing
    • Beamforming
    • Noise reduction
  • Sensors and actuators
  • Buses and high-speed links
  • Displays and imagers
  • External storage
  • Networking hardware
  • Printers
  • Sensor applications and deployments
  • Sensor devices and platforms
  • Sound-based input / output
  • Tactile and hand-based interfaces
    • Touch screens
    • Haptic devices
  • Scanners
  • Wireless devices
  • Wireless integrated network sensors
  • Electro-mechanical devices

    集成电路

  • 3D integrated circuits
  • Interconnect
    • Input / output circuits
    • Metallic interconnect
    • Photonic and optical interconnect
    • Radio frequency and wireless interconnect
  • Semiconductor memory
    • Dynamic memory
    • Static memory
    • Non-volatile memory
    • Read-only memory
  • Digital switches
    • Transistors
    • Logic families
  • Logic circuits
    • Arithmetic and datapath circuits
    • Asynchronous circuits
    • Combinational circuits
    • Design modules and hierarchy
    • Finite state machines
    • Sequential circuits
  • Reconfigurable logic and FPGAs
    • Hardware accelerators
    • High-speed input / output
    • Programmable logic elements
    • Programmable interconnect
    • Reconfigurable logic applications
    • Evolvable hardware

      超大规模集成电路

  • 3D integrated circuits
  • Analog and mixed-signal circuits
    • Data conversion
    • Clock generation and timing
    • Analog and mixed-signal circuit optimization
    • Radio frequency and wireless circuits
    • Wireline communication
    • Analog and mixed-signal circuit synthesis
  • Application-specific VLSI designs
    • Application specific integrated circuits
    • Application specific instruction set processors
    • Application specific processors
  • Design reuse and communication-based design
    • Network on chip
    • System on a chip
    • Platform-based design
    • Hard and soft IP
  • Design rules
  • Economics of chip design and manufacturing
  • Full-custom circuits
  • VLSI design manufacturing considerations
  • On-chip resource management
  • On-chip sensors
  • Standard cell libraries
  • VLSI packaging
    • Die and wafer stacking
    • Input / output styles
    • Multi-chip modules
    • Package-level interconnect
  • VLSI system specification and constraints

    电力和能源

  • Thermal issues
    • Temperature monitoring
    • Temperature simulation and estimation
    • Temperature control
    • Temperature optimization
  • Energy generation and storage
    • Batteries
    • Fuel-based energy
    • Renewable energy
    • Reusable energy storage
  • Energy distribution
    • Energy metering
    • Power conversion
    • Power networks
    • Smart grid
  • Impact on the environment
  • Power estimation and optimization
    • Switching devices power issues
    • Interconnect power issues
    • Circuits power issues
    • Chip-level power issues
    • Platform power issues
    • Enterprise level and data centers power issues

      电子设计自动化

  • High-level and register-transfer level synthesis
    • Datapath optimization
    • Hardware-software codesign
    • Resource binding and sharing
    • Operations scheduling
  • Hardware description languages and compilation
  • Logic synthesis
    • Combinational synthesis
    • Circuit optimization
    • Sequential synthesis
    • Technology-mapping
    • Transistor-level synthesis
  • Modeling and parameter extraction
  • Physical design (EDA)
    • Clock-network synthesis
    • Packaging
    • Partitioning and floorplanning
    • Placement
    • Physical synthesis
    • Power grid design
    • Wire routing
  • Timing analysis
    • Electrical-level simulation
    • Model-order reduction
    • Compact delay models
    • Static timing analysis
    • Statistical timing analysis
    • Transition-based timing analysis
  • Methodologies for EDA
    • Best practices for EDA
    • Design databases for EDA
    • Software tools for EDA

      硬件验证

  • Functional verification
    • Model checking
    • Coverage metrics
    • Equivalence checking
    • Semi-formal verification
    • Simulation and emulation
    • Transaction-level verification
    • Theorem proving and SAT solving
    • Assertion checking
  • Physical verification
    • Design rule checking
    • Layout-versus-schematics
    • Power and thermal analysis
    • Timing analysis and sign-off
  • Post-manufacture validation and debug
    • Bug detection, localization and diagnosis
    • Bug fixing (hardware)
    • Design for debug

      硬件测试

  • Analog, mixed-signal and radio frequency test
  • Board- and system-level test
  • Defect-based test
  • Design for testability
    • Built-in self-test
    • Online test and diagnostics
    • Test data compression
  • Fault models and test metrics
  • Memory test and repair
  • Hardware reliability screening
  • Test-pattern generation and fault simulation
  • Testing with distributed and parallel systems

    健壮性

  • Fault tolerance
    • Error detection and error correction
    • Failure prediction
    • Failure recovery, maintenance and self-repair
    • Redundancy
    • Self-checking mechanisms
    • System-level fault tolerance
  • Design for manufacturability
    • Process variations
    • Yield and cost modeling
    • Yield and cost optimization
  • Hardware reliability
    • Aging of circuits and systems
    • Circuit hardening
    • Early-life failures and infant mortality
    • Process, voltage and temperature variations
    • Signal integrity and noise analysis
    • Transient errors and upsets
  • Safety critical systems

    新兴技术

  • Analysis and design of emerging devices and systems
    • Emerging architectures
    • Emerging languages and compilers
    • Emerging simulation
    • Emerging tools and methodologies
  • Biology-related information processing
    • Bio-embedded electronics
    • Neural systems
  • Circuit substrates
    • III-V compounds
    • Carbon based electronics
    • Cellular neural networks
    • Flexible and printable circuits
    • Superconducting circuits
  • Electromechanical systems
    • Microelectromechanical systems
    • Nanoelectromechanical systems
  • Emerging interfaces
  • Memory and dense storage
  • Emerging optical and photonic technologies
  • Reversible logic
  • Plasmonics
  • Quantum technologies
    • Single electron devices
    • Tunneling devices
    • Quantum computation
      • Quantum communication and cryptography
      • Quantum error correction and fault tolerance
    • Quantum dots and cellular automata
  • Spintronics and magnetic technologies

    计算机系统组织

    架构

  • Serial architectures
    • Reduced instruction set computing
    • Complex instruction set computing
    • Superscalar architectures
    • Pipeline computing
    • Stack machines
  • Parallel architectures
    • Very long instruction word
    • Interconnection architectures
    • Multiple instruction, multiple data
    • Cellular architectures
    • Multiple instruction, single data
    • Single instruction, multiple data
    • Systolic arrays
    • Multicore architectures
  • Distributed architectures
    • Cloud computing
    • Client-server architectures
    • n-tier architectures
    • Peer-to-peer architectures
    • Grid computing
  • Other architectures
    • Neural networks
    • Reconfigurable computing
    • Analog computers
    • Data flow architectures
    • Heterogeneous (hybrid) systems
    • Self-organizing autonomic computing
    • Optical computing
    • Quantum computing
    • Molecular computing
    • High-level language architectures
    • Special purpose systems

      嵌入式和网络物理系统

  • Sensor networks
  • Robotics
    • Robotic components
    • Robotic control
      • Evolutionary robotics
    • Robotic autonomy
    • External interfaces for robotics
  • Sensors and actuators
  • System on a chip
  • Embedded systems
    • Firmware
    • Embedded hardware
    • Embedded software

      实时系统

  • Real-time operating systems
  • Real-time languages
  • Real-time system specification
  • Real-time system architecture

    可靠且容错的系统和网络

  • Reliability
  • Availability
  • Maintainability and maintenance
  • Processors and memory architectures
  • Secondary storage organization
  • Redundancy
  • Fault-tolerant network topologies

    网络

    网络架构

  • Network design principles
    • Layering
    • Naming and addressing
  • Programming interfaces

    网络协议

  • Network protocol design
  • Protocol correctness
    • Protocol testing and verification
    • Formal specifications
  • Link-layer protocols
  • Network layer protocols
    • Routing protocols
    • Signaling protocols
  • Transport protocols
  • Session protocols
  • Presentation protocols
  • Application layer protocols
    • Peer-to-peer protocols
  • OAM protocols
    • Time synchronization protocols
    • Network policy
  • Cross-layer protocols
  • Network File System (NFS) protocol

    网络组件

  • Intermediate nodes
    • Routers
    • Bridges and switches
  • Physical links
    • Repeaters
  • Middle boxes / network appliances
  • End nodes
    • Network adapters
    • Network servers
  • Wireless access points, base stations and infrastructure
    • Cognitive radios
  • Logical nodes
    • Network domains

      网络算法

  • Data path algorithms
    • Packet classification
    • Deep packet inspection
    • Packet scheduling
  • Control path algorithms
    • Network resources allocation
    • Network control algorithms
    • Traffic engineering algorithms
    • Network design and planning algorithms
  • Network economics

    网络性能评估

  • Network performance modeling
  • Network simulations
  • Network experimentation
  • Network performance analysis
  • Network measurement

    网络属性

  • Network security
    • Security protocols
    • Web protocol security
    • Mobile and wireless security
    • Denial-of-service attacks
    • Firewalls
  • Network range
    • Short-range networks
    • Local area networks
    • Metropolitan area networks
    • Wide area networks
    • Very long-range networks
  • Network structure
    • Topology analysis and generation
    • Physical topologies
    • Logical / virtual topologies
    • Network topology types
      • Point-to-point networks
      • Bus networks
      • Star networks
      • Ring networks
        • Token ring networks
        • Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
      • Mesh networks
        • Wireless mesh networks
      • Hybrid networks
  • Network dynamics
  • Network reliability
    • Error detection and error correction
  • Network mobility
  • Network manageability
  • Network privacy and anonymity

    网络服务

  • Naming and addressing
  • Cloud computing
  • Location based services
  • Programmable networks
  • In-network processing
  • Network management
  • Network monitoring

    网络类型

  • Network on chip
  • Home networks
  • Storage area networks
  • Data center networks
  • Wired access networks
  • Cyber-physical networks
    • Sensor networks
  • Mobile networks
  • Overlay and other logical network structures
    • Peer-to-peer networks
    • World Wide Web (network structure)
    • Social media networks
    • Online social networks
  • Wireless access networks
    • Wireless local area networks
    • Wireless personal area networks
  • Ad hoc networks
    • Mobile ad hoc networks
  • Public Internet
  • Packet-switching networks

    软件及其工程

    软件组织和属性

  • Contextual software domains
    • E-commerce infrastructure
    • Software infrastructure
      • Interpreters
      • Middleware
        • Message oriented middleware
        • Reflective middleware
        • Embedded middleware
      • Virtual machines
    • Operating systems
      • File systems management
      • Memory management
        • Virtual memory
        • Main memory
        • Allocation / deallocation strategies
        • Garbage collection
        • Distributed memory
        • Secondary storage
      • Process management
        • Scheduling
        • Deadlocks
        • Multithreading
        • Multiprocessing / multiprogramming / multitasking
        • Monitors
        • Mutual exclusion
        • Concurrency control
        • Power management
        • Process synchronization
      • Communications management
        • Buffering
        • Input / output
        • Message passing
    • Virtual worlds software
      • Interactive games
      • Virtual worlds training simulations
  • Software system structures
    • Embedded software
    • Software architectures
      • n-tier architectures
      • Peer-to-peer architectures
      • Data flow architectures
      • Cooperating communicating processes
      • Layered systems
      • Publish-subscribe / event-based architectures
      • Electronic blackboards
      • Simulator / interpreter
      • Object oriented architectures
      • Tightly coupled architectures
      • Space-based architectures
      • 3-tier architectures
    • Software system models
      • Petri nets
      • State systems
      • Entity relationship modeling
      • Model-driven software engineering
      • Feature interaction
      • Massively parallel systems
    • Ultra-large-scale systems
    • Distributed systems organizing principles
      • Cloud computing
      • Client-server architectures
      • Grid computing
      • Organizing principles for web applications
    • Real-time systems software
    • Abstraction, modeling and modularity
  • Software functional properties
    • Correctness
      • Synchronization
      • Functionality
      • Real-time schedulability
      • Consistency
      • Completeness
      • Access protection
    • Formal methods
      • Model checking
      • Software verification
      • Automated static analysis
      • Dynamic analysis
  • Extra-functional properties
    • Interoperability
    • Software performance
    • Software reliability
    • Software fault tolerance
      • Checkpoint / restart
    • Software safety
    • Software usability

      软件表示法及工具

  • General programming languages
    • Language types
      • Parallel programming languages
      • Distributed programming languages
      • Imperative languages
      • Object oriented languages
      • Functional languages
      • Concurrent programming languages
      • Constraint and logic languages
      • Data flow languages
      • Extensible languages
      • Assembly languages
      • Multiparadigm languages
      • Very high level languages
    • Language features
      • Abstract data types
      • Polymorphism
      • Inheritance
      • Control structures
      • Data types and structures
      • Classes and objects
      • Modules / packages
      • Constraints
      • Recursion
      • Concurrent programming structures
      • Procedures, functions and subroutines
      • Patterns
      • Coroutines
      • Frameworks
  • Formal language definitions
    • Syntax
    • Semantics
  • Compilers
    • Interpreters
    • Incremental compilers
    • Retargetable compilers
    • Just-in-time compilers
    • Dynamic compilers
    • Translator writing systems and compiler generators
    • Source code generation
    • Runtime environments
    • Preprocessors
    • Parsers
  • Context specific languages
    • Markup languages
      • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
      • Hypertext languages
    • Scripting languages
    • Domain specific languages
    • Specialized application languages
    • API languages
    • Graphical user interface languages
    • Window managers
    • Command and control languages
    • Macro languages
    • Programming by example
    • State based definitions
    • Visual languages
    • Interface definition languages
  • System description languages
    • Design languages
    • Unified Modeling Language (UML)
    • Architecture description languages
    • System modeling languages
    • Orchestration languages
    • Integration frameworks
    • Specification languages
  • Development frameworks and environments
    • Object oriented frameworks
    • Software as a service orchestration system
    • Integrated and visual development environments
    • Application specific development environments
  • Software configuration management and version control systems
  • Software libraries and repositories
  • Software maintenance tools

    软件创建及管理

  • Designing software
    • Requirements analysis
    • Software design engineering
    • Software design tradeoffs
    • Software implementation planning
      • Software design techniques
  • Software development process management
    • Software development methods
      • Rapid application development
      • Agile software development
      • Capability Maturity Model
      • Waterfall model
      • Spiral model
      • V-model
      • Design patterns
    • Risk management
  • Software development techniques
    • Software prototyping
    • Object oriented development
    • Flowcharts
    • Reusability
      • Software product lines
    • Error handling and recovery
    • Automatic programming
      • Genetic programming
  • Software verification and validation
    • Software prototyping
    • Operational analysis
    • Software defect analysis
      • Software testing and debugging
    • Fault tree analysis
    • Process validation
      • Walkthroughs
      • Pair programming
      • Use cases
      • Acceptance testing
      • Traceability
    • Formal software verification
    • Empirical software validation
  • Software post-development issues
    • Software reverse engineering
    • Documentation
    • Backup procedures
    • Software evolution
    • Software version control
    • Maintaining software
    • System administration
  • Collaboration in software development
    • Open source model
    • Programming teams
  • Search-based software engineering

    计算理论

    计算模型

  • Computability
    • Lambda calculus
    • Turing machines
    • Recursive functions
  • Probabilistic computation
  • Quantum computation theory
    • Quantum complexity theory
    • Quantum communication complexity
    • Quantum query complexity
    • Quantum information theory
  • Interactive computation
  • Streaming models
  • Concurrency
    • Parallel computing models
    • Distributed computing models
    • Process calculi
  • Timed and hybrid models
  • Abstract machines

    形式语言及自动机理论

  • Formalisms
    • Algebraic language theory
    • Rewrite systems
  • Automata over infinite objects
  • Grammars and context-free languages
  • Tree languages
  • Automata extensions
    • Transducers
    • Quantitative automata
  • Regular languages

    计算复杂度及密码学

  • Complexity classes
  • Problems, reductions and completeness
  • Communication complexity
  • Circuit complexity
  • Oracles and decision trees
  • Algebraic complexity theory
  • Quantum complexity theory
  • Proof complexity
  • Interactive proof systems
  • Complexity theory and logic
  • Cryptographic primitives
  • Cryptographic protocols

    逻辑学

  • Logic and verification
  • Proof theory
  • Modal and temporal logics
  • Automated reasoning
  • Constraint and logic programming
  • Constructive mathematics
  • Description logics
  • Equational logic and rewriting
  • Finite Model Theory
  • Higher order logic
  • Linear logic
  • Programming logic
  • Abstraction
  • Verification by model checking
  • Type theory
  • Hoare logic
  • Separation logic

    算法设计与分析

  • Graph algorithms analysis
    • Network flows
    • Sparsification and spanners
    • Shortest paths
    • Dynamic graph algorithms
  • Approximation algorithms analysis
    • Scheduling algorithms
    • Packing and covering problems
    • Routing and network design problems
    • Facility location and clustering
    • Rounding techniques
    • Stochastic approximation
    • Numeric approximation algorithms
  • Mathematical optimization
    • Discrete optimization
      • Network optimization
      • Optimization with randomized search heuristics
        • Simulated annealing
        • Evolutionary algorithms
        • Tabu search
        • Randomized local search
    • Continuous optimization
      • Linear programming
      • Semidefinite programming
      • Convex optimization
      • Quasiconvex programming and unimodality
      • Stochastic control and optimization
      • Quadratic programming
      • Nonconvex optimization
      • Bio-inspired optimization
    • Mixed discrete-continuous optimization
      • Submodular optimization and polymatroids
      • Integer programming
      • Bio-inspired optimization
    • Non-parametric optimization
      • Genetic programming
      • Developmental representations
  • Data structures design and analysis
    • Data compression
    • Pattern matching
    • Sorting and searching
    • Predecessor queries
    • Cell probe models and lower bounds
  • Online algorithms
    • Online learning algorithms
      • Scheduling algorithms
    • Caching and paging algorithms
    • K-server algorithms
    • Adversary models
  • Parameterized complexity and exact algorithms
    • Fixed parameter tractability
    • W hierarchy
  • Streaming, sublinear and near linear time algorithms
    • Bloom filters and hashing
    • Sketching and sampling
    • Lower bounds and information complexity
    • Random order and robust communication complexity
    • Nearest neighbor algorithms
  • Parallel algorithms
    • MapReduce algorithms
    • Self-organization
    • Shared memory algorithms
    • Vector / streaming algorithms
    • Massively parallel algorithms
  • Distributed algorithms
    • MapReduce algorithms
    • Self-organization
  • Algorithm design techniques
    • Backtracking
    • Branch-and-bound
    • Divide and conquer
    • Dynamic programming
    • Preconditioning
  • Concurrent algorithms

    随机性、几何学和离散结构

  • Pseudorandomness and derandomization
  • Computational geometry
  • Generating random combinatorial structures
  • Random walks and Markov chains
  • Expander graphs and randomness extractors
  • Error-correcting codes
  • Random projections and metric embeddings
  • Random network models
  • Random search heuristics

    应用领域理论和算法

  • Machine learning theory
    • Sample complexity and generalization bounds
    • Boolean function learning
    • Unsupervised learning and clustering
    • Kernel methods
      • Support vector machines
      • Gaussian processes
    • Boosting
    • Bayesian analysis
    • Inductive inference
    • Online learning theory
    • Multi-agent learning
    • Models of learning
    • Query learning
    • Structured prediction
    • Reinforcement learning
      • Sequential decision making
      • Inverse reinforcement learning
      • Apprenticeship learning
      • Multi-agent reinforcement learning
      • Adversarial learning
    • Active learning
    • Semi-supervised learning
    • Markov decision processes
    • Regret bounds
  • Algorithmic game theory and mechanism design
    • Social networks
    • Algorithmic game theory
    • Algorithmic mechanism design
    • Solution concepts in game theory
    • Exact and approximate computation of equilibria
    • Quality of equilibria
    • Convergence and learning in games
    • Market equilibria
    • Computational pricing and auctions
    • Representations of games and their complexity
    • Network games
    • Network formation
    • Computational advertising theory
  • Database theory
    • Data exchange
    • Data provenance
    • Data modeling
    • Database query languages (principles)
    • Database constraints theory
    • Database interoperability
    • Data structures and algorithms for data management
    • Database query processing and optimization (theory)
    • Data integration
    • Logic and databases
    • Theory of database privacy and security
    • Incomplete, inconsistent, and uncertain databases
  • Theory of randomized search heuristics

    语义及推理

  • Program constructs
    • Control primitives
    • Functional constructs
    • Object oriented constructs
    • Program schemes
    • Type structures
  • Program semantics
    • Algebraic semantics
    • Denotational semantics
    • Operational semantics
    • Axiomatic semantics
    • Action semantics
    • Categorical semantics
  • Program reasoning
    • Invariants
    • Program specifications
    • Pre- and post-conditions
    • Program verification
    • Program analysis
    • Assertions
    • Parsing
    • Abstraction

      计算机数学

      离散数学

  • Combinatorics
  • Combinatoric problems
  • Permutations and combinations
  • Combinatorial algorithms
  • Generating functions
  • Combinatorial optimization
  • Combinatorics on words
  • Enumeration
  • Graph theory
  • Trees
  • Hypergraphs
  • Random graphs
  • Graph coloring
  • Paths and connectivity problems
  • Graph enumeration
  • Matchings and factors
  • Graphs and surfaces
  • Network flows
  • Spectra of graphs
  • Extremal graph theory
  • Matroids and greedoids
  • Graph algorithms
  • Approximation algorithms

    概览论与统计学

  • Probabilistic representations
    • Bayesian networks
    • Markov networks
    • Factor graphs
    • Decision diagrams
    • Equational models
    • Causal networks
    • Stochastic differential equations
    • Nonparametric representations
      • Kernel density estimators
      • Spline models
      • Bayesian nonparametric models
  • Probabilistic inference problems
    • Maximum likelihood estimation
    • Bayesian computation
    • Computing most probable explanation
    • Hypothesis testing and confidence interval computation
    • Density estimation
      • Quantile regression
    • Max marginal computation
  • Probabilistic reasoning algorithms
    • Variable elimination
    • Loopy belief propagation
    • Variational methods
    • Expectation maximization
    • Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods
      • Gibbs sampling
      • Metropolis-Hastings algorithm
      • Simulated annealing
      • Markov-chain Monte Carlo convergence measures
    • Sequential Monte Carlo methods
    • Kalman filters and hidden Markov models
    • Resampling methods
      • Bootstrapping
      • Jackknifing
    • Random number generation
  • Probabilistic algorithms
  • Statistical paradigms
    • Queueing theory
    • Contingency table analysis
    • Regression analysis
      • Robust regression
    • Time series analysis
    • Survival analysis
    • Renewal theory
    • Dimensionality reduction
    • Cluster analysis
    • Statistical graphics
    • Exploratory data analysis
  • Stochastic processes
    • Markov processes
  • Nonparametric statistics
  • Distribution functions
  • Multivariate statistics

    数学软件

  • Solvers
  • Statistical software
  • Mathematical software performance

    信息论

  • Coding theory

    数学分析

  • Numerical analysis
    • Computation of transforms
    • Computations in finite fields
    • Computations on matrices
    • Computations on polynomials
      • Gr��bner bases and other special bases
    • Number-theoretic computations
    • Interpolation
    • Numerical differentiation
    • Interval arithmetic
    • Arbitrary-precision arithmetic
    • Automatic differentiation
    • Mesh generation
    • Discretization
  • Mathematical optimization
    • Discrete optimization
      • Network optimization
      • Optimization with randomized search heuristics
        • Simulated annealing
        • Evolutionary algorithms
        • Tabu search
        • Randomized local search
    • Continuous optimization
      • Linear programming
      • Semidefinite programming
      • Convex optimization
      • Quasiconvex programming and unimodality
      • Stochastic control and optimization
      • Quadratic programming
      • Nonconvex optimization
      • Bio-inspired optimization
    • Mixed discrete-continuous optimization
      • Submodular optimization and polymatroids
      • Integer programming
      • Bio-inspired optimization
    • Non-parametric optimization
      • Genetic programming
      • Developmental representations
  • Differential equations
    • Ordinary differential equations
    • Partial differential equations
    • Differential algebraic equations
    • Differential variational inequalities
  • Calculus
    • Lambda calculus
    • Differential calculus
    • Integral calculus
  • Functional analysis
    • Approximation
  • Integral equations
  • Nonlinear equations
  • Quadrature

    连续数学

  • Calculus
    • Lambda calculus
    • Differential calculus
    • Integral calculus
  • Topology
    • Point-set topology
    • Algebraic topology
    • Geometric topology
  • Continuous functions

    信息系统

    数据管理系统

  • Database design and models
    • Relational database model
    • Entity relationship models
    • Graph-based database models
      • Hierarchical data models
      • Network data models
    • Physical data models
    • Data model extensions
      • Semi-structured data
      • Data streams
      • Data provenance
      • Incomplete data
      • Temporal data
      • Uncertainty
      • Inconsistent data
  • Data structures
    • Data access methods
      • Multidimensional range search
      • Data scans
      • Point lookups
      • Unidimensional range search
      • Proximity search
    • Data layout
      • Data compression
      • Data encryption
      • Record and block layout
  • Database management system engines
    • DBMS engine architectures
    • Database query processing
      • Query optimization
      • Query operators
      • Query planning
      • Join algorithms
    • Database transaction processing
      • Data locking
      • Transaction logging
      • Database recovery
    • Record and buffer management
    • Parallel and distributed DBMSs
      • Key-value stores
      • MapReduce-based systems
      • Relational parallel and distributed DBMSs
    • Triggers and rules
    • Database views
    • Integrity checking
    • Distributed database transactions
      • Distributed data locking
      • Deadlocks
      • Distributed database recovery
    • Main memory engines
    • Online analytical processing engines
    • Stream management
  • Query languages
    • Relational database query languages
      • Structured Query Language
    • XML query languages
      • XPath
      • XQuery
    • Query languages for non-relational engines
      • MapReduce languages
    • Call level interfaces
  • Database administration
    • Database utilities and tools
    • Database performance evaluation
    • Autonomous database administration
    • Data dictionaries
  • Information integration
    • Deduplication
    • Extraction, transformation and loading
    • Data exchange
    • Data cleaning
    • Wrappers (data mining)
    • Mediators and data integration
    • Entity resolution
    • Data warehouses
    • Federated databases
  • Middleware for databases
    • Database web servers
    • Application servers
    • Object-relational mapping facilities
    • Data federation tools
    • Data replication tools
    • Distributed transaction monitors
    • Message queues
    • Service buses
    • Enterprise application integration tools
    • Middleware business process managers

      数据存储系统

  • Information storage technologies
    • Magnetic disks
    • Magnetic tapes
    • Optical / magneto-optical disks
    • Storage class memory
      • Flash memory
      • Phase change memory
    • Disk arrays
    • Tape libraries
  • Record storage systems
    • Record storage alternatives
      • Heap (data structure)
      • Hashed file organization
      • Indexed file organization
      • Linked lists
    • Directory structures
      • B-trees
      • Vnodes
      • Inodes
      • Extent-based file structures
    • Block / page strategies
      • Slotted pages
      • Intrapage space management
      • Interpage free-space management
    • Record layout alternatives
      • Fixed length attributes
      • Variable length attributes
      • Null values in records
    • Relational storage
      • Horizontal partitioning
      • Vertical partitioning
      • Column based storage
      • Hybrid storage layouts
      • Compression strategies
  • Storage replication
    • Mirroring
    • RAID
    • Point-in-time copies
    • Remote replication
    • Storage recovery strategies
  • Storage architectures
    • Cloud based storage
    • Storage network architectures
      • Storage area networks
      • Direct attached storage
      • Network attached storage
    • Distributed storage
  • Storage management
    • Hierarchical storage management
    • Storage virtualization
    • Information lifecycle management
    • Version management
    • Storage power management
    • Thin provisioning

      信息系统的应用

  • Enterprise information systems
    • Intranets
    • Extranets
    • Enterprise resource planning
    • Enterprise applications
    • Data centers
  • Collaborative and social computing systems and tools
    • Blogs
    • Wikis
    • Reputation systems
    • Open source software
    • Social networking sites
    • Social tagging systems
    • Synchronous editors
    • Asynchronous editors
  • Spatial-temporal systems
    • Location based services
    • Geographic information systems
    • Sensor networks
    • Data streaming
    • Global positioning systems
  • Decision support systems
    • Data warehouses
    • Expert systems
    • Data analytics
    • Online analytical processing
  • Mobile information processing systems
  • Process control systems
  • Multimedia information systems
    • Multimedia databases
    • Multimedia streaming
    • Multimedia content creation
    • Massively multiplayer online games
  • Data mining
    • Data cleaning
    • Collaborative filtering
    • Association rules
    • Clustering
    • Nearest-neighbor search
    • Data stream mining
  • Digital libraries and archives
  • Computational advertising
  • Computing platforms

    互联网

  • Web searching and information discovery
    • Web search engines
      • Web crawling
      • Web indexing
      • Page and site ranking
      • Spam detection
    • Content ranking
    • Collaborative filtering
    • Social recommendation
    • Personalization
    • Social tagging
  • Online advertising
    • Sponsored search advertising
    • Content match advertising
    • Display advertising
    • Social advertising
  • Web mining
    • Site wrapping
    • Data extraction and integration
      • Deep web
      • Surfacing
      • Search results deduplication
    • Web log analysis
    • Traffic analysis
  • Web applications
    • Internet communications tools
      • Email
      • Blogs
      • Texting
      • Chat
      • Web conferencing
    • Social networks
    • Crowdsourcing
      • Answer ranking
      • Trust
      • Incentive schemes
      • Reputation systems
    • Electronic commerce
      • Digital cash
      • E-commerce infrastructure
      • Electronic data interchange
      • Electronic funds transfer
      • Online shopping
      • Online banking
      • Secure online transactions
      • Online auctions
  • Web interfaces
    • Wikis
    • Browsers
    • Mashups
  • Web services
    • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
    • RESTful web services
    • Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
    • Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI)
    • Service discovery and interfaces
  • Web data description languages
    • Semantic web description languages
      • Resource Description Framework (RDF)
      • Web Ontology Language (OWL)
    • Markup languages
      • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
      • Hypertext languages

        信息检索

  • Document representation
    • Document structure
    • Document topic models
    • Content analysis and feature selection
    • Data encoding and canonicalization
    • Document collection models
    • Ontologies
    • Dictionaries
    • Thesauri
  • Information retrieval query processing
    • Query representation
    • Query intent
    • Query log analysis
    • Query suggestion
    • Query reformulation
  • Users and interactive retrieval
    • Personalization
    • Task models
    • Search interfaces
    • Collaborative search
  • Retrieval models and ranking
    • Rank aggregation
    • Probabilistic retrieval models
    • Language models
    • Similarity measures
    • Learning to rank
    • Combination, fusion and federated search
    • Information retrieval diversity
    • Top-k retrieval in databases
    • Novelty in information retrieval
  • Retrieval tasks and goals
    • Question answering
    • Document filtering
    • Recommender systems
    • Information extraction
    • Sentiment analysis
    • Expert search
    • Near-duplicate and plagiarism detection
    • Clustering and classification
    • Summarization
    • Business intelligence
  • Evaluation of retrieval results
    • Test collections
    • Relevance assessment
    • Retrieval effectiveness
    • Retrieval efficiency
    • Presentation of retrieval results
  • Search engine architectures and scalability
    • Search engine indexing
    • Search index compression
    • Distributed retrieval
    • Peer-to-peer retrieval
    • Retrieval on mobile devices
    • Adversarial retrieval
    • Link and co-citation analysis
    • Searching with auxiliary databases
  • Specialized information retrieval
    • Structure and multilingual text search
      • Structured text search
      • Mathematics retrieval
      • Chemical and biochemical retrieval
      • Multilingual and cross-lingual retrieval
    • Multimedia and multimodal retrieval
      • Image search
      • Video search
      • Speech / audio search
      • Music retrieval
    • Environment-specific retrieval
      • Enterprise search
      • Desktop search
      • Web and social media search

        安全与隐私

        密码学

  • Key management
  • Public key (asymmetric) techniques
    • Digital signatures
    • Public key encryption
  • Symmetric cryptography and hash functions
    • Block and stream ciphers
    • Hash functions and message authentication codes
  • Cryptanalysis and other attacks
  • Information-theoretic techniques
  • Mathematical foundations of cryptography

    安全的形式方法及理论

  • Trust frameworks
  • Security requirements
  • Formal security models
  • Logic and verification

    安全服务

  • Authentication
    • Biometrics
    • Graphical / visual passwords
    • Multi-factor authentication
  • Access control
  • Pseudonymity, anonymity and untraceability
  • Privacy-preserving protocols
  • Digital rights management
  • Authorization

    入侵/异常检测与恶意软件拦截

  • Malware and its mitigation
  • Intrusion detection systems
    • Artificial immune systems
  • Social engineering attacks
    • Spoofing attacks
    • Phishing

      硬件安全

  • Tamper-proof and tamper-resistant designs
  • Embedded systems security
  • Hardware security implementation
    • Hardware-based security protocols
  • Hardware attacks and countermeasures
    • Malicious design modifications
    • Side-channel analysis and countermeasures
  • Hardware reverse engineering

    系统安全

  • Operating systems security
    • Mobile platform security
    • Trusted computing
    • Virtualization and security
  • Browser security
  • Distributed systems security
  • Information flow control
  • Denial-of-service attacks
  • Firewalls
  • Vulnerability management
    • Penetration testing
    • Vulnerability scanners
  • File system security

    网络安全

  • Security protocols
  • Web protocol security
  • Mobile and wireless security
  • Denial-of-service attacks
  • Firewalls

    数据库和存储安全

  • Data anonymization and sanitization
  • Management and querying of encrypted data
  • Information accountability and usage control
  • Database activity monitoring

    软件和应用安全

  • Software security engineering
  • Web application security
  • Social network security and privacy
  • Domain-specific security and privacy architectures
  • Software reverse engineering

    安全与隐私的人文与社会

  • Economics of security and privacy
  • Social aspects of security and privacy
  • Privacy protections
  • Usability in security and privacy

    以人为本的计算机

    人机交互

  • HCI design and evaluation methods
    • User models
    • User studies
    • Usability testing
    • Heuristic evaluations
    • Walkthrough evaluations
    • Laboratory experiments
    • Field studies
  • Interaction paradigms
    • Hypertext / hypermedia
    • Mixed / augmented reality
    • Command line interfaces
    • Graphical user interfaces
    • Virtual reality
    • Web-based interaction
    • Natural language interfaces
    • Collaborative interaction
  • Interaction devices
    • Graphics input devices
    • Displays and imagers
    • Sound-based input / output
    • Keyboards
    • Pointing devices
    • Touch screens
    • Haptic devices
  • HCI theory, concepts and models
  • Interaction techniques
    • Auditory feedback
    • Text input
    • Pointing
    • Gestural input
  • Interactive systems and tools
    • User interface management systems
    • User interface programming
    • User interface toolkits
  • Empirical studies in HCI

    交互设计

  • Interaction design process and methods
    • User interface design
    • User centered design
    • Activity centered design
    • Scenario-based design
    • Participatory design
    • Contextual design
    • Interface design prototyping
  • Interaction design theory, concepts and paradigms
  • Empirical studies in interaction design
  • Systems and tools for interaction design
    • Wireframes

      协作及社交计算

  • Collaborative and social computing theory, concepts and paradigms
    • Social content sharing
    • Collaborative content creation
    • Collaborative filtering
    • Social recommendation
    • Social networks
    • Social tagging
    • Computer supported cooperative work
    • Social engineering (social sciences)
    • Social navigation
    • Social media
  • Collaborative and social computing design and evaluation methods
    • Social network analysis
    • Ethnographic studies
  • Collaborative and social computing systems and tools
    • Blogs
    • Wikis
    • Reputation systems
    • Open source software
    • Social networking sites
    • Social tagging systems
    • Synchronous editors
    • Asynchronous editors
  • Empirical studies in collaborative and social computing
  • Collaborative and social computing devices

    普适计算

  • Ubiquitous and mobile computing theory, concepts and paradigms
    • Ubiquitous computing
    • Mobile computing
    • Ambient intelligence
  • Ubiquitous and mobile computing systems and tools
  • Ubiquitous and mobile devices
    • Smartphones
    • Interactive whiteboards
    • Mobile phones
    • Mobile devices
    • Portable media players
    • Personal digital assistants
    • Handheld game consoles
    • E-book readers
    • Tablet computers
  • Ubiquitous and mobile computing design and evaluation methods
  • Empirical studies in ubiquitous and mobile computing

    可视化

  • Visualization techniques
    • Treemaps
    • Hyperbolic trees
    • Heat maps
    • Graph drawings
    • Dendrograms
    • Cladograms
  • Visualization application domains
    • Scientific visualization
    • Visual analytics
    • Geographic visualization
    • Information visualization
  • Visualization systems and tools
    • Visualization toolkits
  • Visualization theory, concepts and paradigms
  • Empirical studies in visualization
  • Visualization design and evaluation methods

    辅助功能

  • Accessibility theory, concepts and paradigms
  • Empirical studies in accessibility
  • Accessibility design and evaluation methods
  • Accessibility technologies
  • Accessibility systems and tools

    计算方法

    符号和代数运算

  • Symbolic and algebraic algorithms
    • Combinatorial algorithms
    • Algebraic algorithms
    • Nonalgebraic algorithms
    • Symbolic calculus algorithms
    • Exact arithmetic algorithms
    • Hybrid symbolic-numeric methods
    • Discrete calculus algorithms
    • Number theory algorithms
    • Equation and inequality solving algorithms
    • Linear algebra algorithms
    • Theorem proving algorithms
    • Boolean algebra algorithms
    • Optimization algorithms
  • Computer algebra systems
    • Special-purpose algebraic systems
  • Representation of mathematical objects
    • Representation of exact numbers
    • Representation of mathematical functions
    • Representation of Boolean functions
    • Representation of polynomials

      并行计算方法

  • Parallel algorithms
    • MapReduce algorithms
    • Self-organization
    • Shared memory algorithms
    • Vector / streaming algorithms
    • Massively parallel algorithms
  • Parallel programming languages

    人工智能

  • Natural language processing
    • Information extraction
    • Machine translation
    • Discourse, dialogue and pragmatics
    • Natural language generation
    • Speech recognition
    • Lexical semantics
    • Phonology / morphology
    • Language resources
  • Knowledge representation and reasoning
    • Description logics
    • Semantic networks
    • Nonmonotonic, default reasoning and belief revision
    • Probabilistic reasoning
    • Vagueness and fuzzy logic
    • Causal reasoning and diagnostics
    • Temporal reasoning
    • Cognitive robotics
    • Ontology engineering
    • Logic programming and answer set programming
    • Spatial and physical reasoning
    • Reasoning about belief and knowledge
  • Planning and scheduling
    • Planning for deterministic actions
    • Planning under uncertainty
    • Multi-agent planning
    • Planning with abstraction and generalization
    • Robotic planning
      • Evolutionary robotics
  • Search methodologies
    • Heuristic function construction
    • Discrete space search
    • Continuous space search
    • Randomized search
    • Game tree search
    • Abstraction and micro-operators
    • Search with partial observations
  • Control methods
    • Robotic planning
      • Evolutionary robotics
    • Computational control theory
    • Motion path planning
  • Philosophical/theoretical foundations of artificial intelligence
    • Cognitive science
    • Theory of mind
  • Distributed artificial intelligence
    • Multi-agent systems
    • Intelligent agents
    • Mobile agents
    • Cooperation and coordination
  • Computer vision
    • Computer vision tasks
      • Biometrics
      • Scene understanding
      • Activity recognition and understanding
      • Video summarization
      • Visual content-based indexing and retrieval
      • Visual inspection
      • Vision for robotics
      • Scene anomaly detection
    • Image and video acquisition
      • Camera calibration
      • Epipolar geometry
      • Computational photography
      • Hyperspectral imaging
      • Motion capture
      • 3D imaging
      • Active vision
    • Computer vision representations
      • Image representations
      • Shape representations
      • Appearance and texture representations
      • Hierarchical representations
    • Computer vision problems
      • Interest point and salient region detections
      • Image segmentation
      • Video segmentation
      • Shape inference
      • Object detection
      • Object recognition
      • Object identification
      • Tracking
      • Reconstruction
      • Matching

        机器学习

    • Learning paradigms
      • Supervised learning
        • Ranking
        • Learning to rank
        • Supervised learning by classification
        • Supervised learning by regression
        • Structured outputs
        • Cost-sensitive learning
      • Unsupervised learning
        • Cluster analysis
        • Anomaly detection
        • Mixture modeling
        • Topic modeling
        • Source separation
        • Motif discovery
        • Dimensionality reduction and manifold learning
      • Reinforcement learning
        • Sequential decision making
        • Inverse reinforcement learning
        • Apprenticeship learning
        • Multi-agent reinforcement learning
        • Adversarial learning
      • Multi-task learning
        • Transfer learning
        • Lifelong machine learning
        • Learning under covariate shift
    • Learning settings
      • Batch learning
      • Online learning settings
      • Learning from demonstrations
      • Learning from critiques
      • Learning from implicit feedback
      • Active learning settings
      • Semi-supervised learning settings
    • Machine learning approaches
      • Classification and regression trees
      • Kernel methods
        • Support vector machines
        • Gaussian processes
      • Neural networks
      • Logical and relational learning
        • Inductive logic learning
        • Statistical relational learning
      • Learning in probabilistic graphical models
        • Maximum likelihood modeling
        • Maximum entropy modeling
        • Maximum a posteriori modeling
        • Mixture models
        • Latent variable models
        • Bayesian network models
      • Learning linear models
        • Perceptron algorithm
      • Factorization methods
        • Non-negative matrix factorization
        • Factor analysis
        • Principal component analysis
        • Canonical correlation analysis
        • Latent Dirichlet allocation
      • Rule learning
      • Instance-based learning
      • Markov decision processes
      • Partially-observable Markov decision processes
      • Stochastic games
      • Learning latent representations
        • Deep belief networks
      • Bio-inspired approaches
        • Artificial life
        • Evolvable hardware
        • Genetic algorithms
        • Genetic programming
        • Evolutionary robotics
        • Generative and developmental approaches
    • Machine learning algorithms
      • Dynamic programming for Markov decision processes
        • Value iteration
        • Q-learning
        • Policy iteration
        • Temporal difference learning
        • Approximate dynamic programming methods
      • Ensemble methods
        • Boosting
        • Bagging
      • Spectral methods
      • Feature selection
      • Regularization
    • Cross-validation

      建模与模拟

    • Model development and analysis
      • Modeling methodologies
      • Model verification and validation
      • Uncertainty quantification
    • Simulation theory
      • Systems theory
      • Network science
    • Simulation types and techniques
      • Uncertainty quantification
      • Quantum mechanic simulation
      • Molecular simulation
      • Rare-event simulation
      • Discrete-event simulation
      • Agent / discrete models
      • Distributed simulation
      • Continuous simulation
      • Continuous models
      • Real-time simulation
      • Interactive simulation
      • Multiscale systems
      • Massively parallel and high-performance simulations
      • Data assimilation
      • Scientific visualization
      • Visual analytics
      • Simulation by animation
      • Artificial life
    • Simulation support systems
      • Simulation environments
      • Simulation languages
      • Simulation tools
    • Simulation evaluation

      计算机图形

    • Animation
      • Motion capture
      • Procedural animation
      • Physical simulation
      • Motion processing
      • Collision detection
    • Rendering
      • Rasterization
      • Ray tracing
      • Non-photorealistic rendering
      • Reflectance modeling
      • Visibility
    • Image manipulation
      • Computational photography
      • Image processing
      • Texturing
      • Image-based rendering
      • Antialiasing
    • Graphics systems and interfaces
      • Graphics processors
      • Graphics input devices
      • Mixed / augmented reality
      • Perception
      • Graphics file formats
      • Virtual reality
    • Image compression
    • Shape modeling
      • Mesh models
      • Mesh geometry models
      • Parametric curve and surface models
      • Point-based models
      • Volumetric models
      • Shape analysis

        分布式计算方法

    • Distributed algorithms
      • MapReduce algorithms
      • Self-organization
    • Distributed programming languages

      并发计算方法

    • Concurrent programming languages
    • Concurrent algorithms

      应用计算

      电子商务

    • Digital cash
    • E-commerce infrastructure
    • Electronic data interchange
    • Electronic funds transfer
    • Online shopping
    • Online banking
    • Secure online transactions
    • Online auctions

      企业计算

    • Enterprise information systems
      • Intranets
      • Extranets
      • Enterprise resource planning
      • Enterprise applications
      • Data centers
    • Business process management
      • Business process modeling
      • Business process management systems
      • Business process monitoring
      • Cross-organizational business processes
      • Business intelligence
    • Enterprise architectures
      • Enterprise architecture management
      • Enterprise architecture frameworks
      • Enterprise architecture modeling
    • Service-oriented architectures
    • Event-driven architectures
    • Business rules
    • Enterprise modeling
    • Enterprise ontologies, taxonomies and vocabularies
    • Enterprise data management
    • Reference models
    • Business-IT alignment
    • IT architectures
    • IT governance
    • Enterprise computing infrastructures
    • Enterprise interoperability
      • Enterprise application integration
      • Information integration and interoperability

        物理科学与工程

    • Aerospace
      • Avionics
    • Archaeology
    • Astronomy
    • Chemistry
    • Earth and atmospheric sciences
      • Environmental sciences
    • Engineering
      • Computer-aided design
    • Physics
    • Mathematics and statistics
    • Electronics
      • Avionics
    • Telecommunications
      • Internet telephony

        生命与医学

    • Computational biology
      • Molecular sequence analysis
      • Recognition of genes and regulatory elements
      • Molecular evolution
      • Computational transcriptomics
      • Biological networks
      • Sequencing and genotyping technologies
      • Imaging
      • Computational proteomics
      • Molecular structural biology
      • Computational genomics
    • Genomics
      • Computational genomics
    • Systems biology
    • Consumer health
    • Health care information systems
    • Health informatics
    • Bioinformatics
    • Metabolomics / metabonomics
    • Genetics
      • Population genetics
      • Proteomics
        • Computational proteomics
      • Transcriptomics

        法律、社会科学与行为科学

    • Anthropology
      • Ethnography
    • Law
    • Psychology
    • Economics
    • Sociology

      计算机鉴别

    • Surveillance mechanisms
    • Investigation techniques
    • Evidence collection, storage and analysis
    • Network forensics
    • System forensics
    • Data recovery

      人文艺术

    • Fine arts
    • Performing arts
    • Architecture (buildings)
      • Computer-aided design
    • Language translation
    • Media arts
    • Sound and music computing

      其它领域的计算机

    • Digital libraries and archives
    • Publishing
    • Military
      • Cyberwarfare
    • Cartography
    • Agriculture
    • Computing in government
      • Voting / election technologies
      • E-government
    • Personal computers and PC applications
      • Word processors
      • Spreadsheets
      • Computer games
      • Microcomputers

        运筹学

    • Consumer products
    • Industry and manufacturing
      • Supply chain management
      • Command and control
    • Computer-aided manufacturing
    • Decision analysis
      • Multi-criterion optimization and decision-making
    • Transportation
    • Forecasting
    • Marketing

      教育

    • Digital libraries and archives
    • Computer-assisted instruction
    • Interactive learning environments
    • Collaborative learning
    • Learning management systems
    • Distance learning
    • E-learning
    • Computer-managed instruction

      文件管理与文字处理

    • Document searching
    • Document management
      • Text editing
      • Version control
      • Document metadata
    • Document capture
      • Document analysis
      • Document scanning
      • Graphics recognition and interpretation
      • Optical character recognition
      • Online handwriting recognition
    • Document preparation
      • Markup languages
        • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
        • Hypertext languages
      • Annotation
      • Format and notation
      • Multi / mixed media creation
      • Image composition
      • Hypertext / hypermedia creation
      • Document scripting languages

        社会和职业话题

        职业话题

    • Computing industry
      • Industry statistics
      • Computer manufacturing
      • Sustainability
    • Management of computing and information systems
      • Project and people management
        • Project management techniques
        • Project staffing
        • Systems planning
        • Systems analysis and design
        • Systems development
        • Computer and information systems training
      • Implementation management
        • Hardware selection
        • Computing equipment management
        • Pricing and resource allocation
      • Software management
        • Software maintenance
        • Software selection and adaptation
      • System management
        • Centralization / decentralization
        • Technology audits
        • Quality assurance
      • Network operations
      • File systems management
      • Information system economics
    • History of computing
      • Historical people
      • History of hardware
      • History of software
      • History of programming languages
      • History of computing theory
    • Computing education
      • Computational thinking
      • Accreditation
      • Model curricula
      • Computing education programs
        • Information systems education
        • Computer science education
          • CS1
        • Computer engineering education
        • Information technology education
        • Information science education
        • Computational science and engineering education
        • Software engineering education
      • Informal education
      • Computing literacy
      • Student assessment
      • K-12 education
      • Adult education
    • Computing and business
      • Employment issues
      • Automation
      • Computer supported cooperative work
      • Economic impact
      • Offshoring
      • Reengineering
      • Socio-technical systems
    • Computing profession
      • Codes of ethics
      • Employment issues
      • Funding
      • Computing occupations
      • Computing organizations
      • Testing, certification and licensing
      • Assistive technologies

        计算/技术政策

    • Intellectual property
      • Digital rights management
      • Copyrights
      • Software reverse engineering
      • Patents
      • Trademarks
      • Internet governance / domain names
      • Licensing
      • Treaties
      • Database protection laws
      • Secondary liability
      • Soft intellectual property
      • Hardware reverse engineering
    • Privacy policies
    • Censorship
      • Pornography
      • Hate speech
      • Political speech
      • Technology and censorship
      • Censoring filters
    • Surveillance
      • Governmental surveillance
      • Corporate surveillance
    • Commerce policy
      • Taxation
      • Transborder data flow
      • Antitrust and competition
      • Governmental regulations
      • Online auctions policy
      • Consumer products policy
    • Network access control
      • Censoring filters
      • Broadband access
      • Net neutrality
      • Network access restrictions
        • Age-based restrictions
        • Acceptable use policy restrictions
      • Universal access
    • Computer crime
      • Social engineering attacks
        • Spoofing attacks
        • Phishing
      • Identity theft
      • Financial crime
      • Malware / spyware crime
    • Government technology policy
      • Governmental regulations
      • Import / export controls
    • Medical information policy
      • Medical records
      • Personal health records
      • Genetic information
      • Patient privacy
      • Health information exchanges
      • Medical technologies
        • Remote medicine

          用户特征

    • Race and ethnicity
    • Religious orientation
    • Gender
      • Men
      • Women
    • Sexual orientation
    • People with disabilities
    • Geographic characteristics
    • Cultural characteristics
    • Age
      • Children
      • Seniors
      • Adolescents